English
聯系我們
網站地圖
郵箱
舊版回顧



侏羅紀善攀鳥龍類揭示膜質翅膀在恐龍中的演化

文章來源:古脊椎動物與古人類研究所   發布時間:2019-05-09  【字號:     】  

  2019年《自然》(Nature)以封面文章發表了中國科學院古脊椎動物與古人類研究所王敏、鄒晶梅、徐星、周忠和的研究成果:侏羅紀善攀鳥龍類揭示膜質翅膀在恐龍中的演化,展示了在恐龍—鳥類演化歷程中出現大量意想不到的適應飛行的嘗試,與之對應演化出差異顯著的骨骼—表皮衍生物組合。

  在脊椎動物漫長的演化史中,翼龍、鳥類和蝙蝠獨立演化出了形態迥異的飛行結構。相較翼龍和蝙蝠不完整的化石記錄,隨著不斷發現的帶羽毛恐龍和早期鳥類化石,尤其得益于我國中晚侏羅世的燕遼生物群和早白堊世的熱河生物群,有關鳥類飛行起源這一重要科學問題取得了重要進展,而善攀鳥龍類的發現則揭示了“一條匪夷所思的征服藍天之旅”。善攀鳥龍類(Scansoriopterygidae)是恐龍家族中最為怪異的類群,生活在中—晚侏羅世,迄今發現的僅有三個屬種:寧城樹棲龍(Epidendrosaurus ningchengensis)、胡氏耀龍(Epidexipteryx hui)和奇翼龍(Yi qi)。善攀鳥龍類形態特殊,如頭骨高聳、四肢纖細、第三手指(最外側的手指)加長、古老的2-3-4手指指式、尾骨縮短等,儼然是恐龍和鳥類的“混合體”,而它一度被認為是和鳥類具有最近親緣關系的獸腳類恐龍。但上述標本或不完整,或屬于幼年個體,大量形態特征難以觀察,造成它在演化樹上的位置撲朔迷離。2015年徐星等命名的奇翼龍更加為這一類群增添神秘色彩。奇翼龍的前肢附著翼膜,還具有一根棒狀長骨,這樣的長骨在其它恐龍(包括鳥類)中沒有對應的同源結構。因此,奇翼龍被復原成類似翼龍那樣具有膜質翅膀而能夠滑翔。但奇翼龍的標本僅有一件,保存不完整,因此對于棒狀長骨和翼膜的結構還存有爭議。

  2017年周忠和帶領的基礎科學中心團隊在遼寧晚侏羅世地層考察時獲得一件新化石。經過長達一年的室內修理、實驗和對比研究,研究團隊認為其代表一新的善攀鳥龍類,將其命名為長臂渾元龍(Ambopteryx longibrachium)(意指翼龍那樣膜質翅膀和恐龍的混合體)。渾元龍發現于燕遼生物群晚侏羅世早期的海房溝組(距今約1.63億年),其正型標本是目前已知最完整的善攀鳥龍類化石,提供大量形態和生態學信息。渾元龍體長約32厘米,體重約306克。渾元龍在肱骨近端關節面、手指和腰帶形態方面明顯不同于其它善攀鳥龍類,并且具有原始鳥類那樣的尾綜骨,如此縮短的尾骨能進一步將身體重心前移,有利于在飛行/滑翔時保持穩定。更為重要的是,研究人員在渾元龍上發現了和奇翼龍相似的棒狀長骨和翼膜(翼膜中保存有色素體),這一新發現為棒狀長骨和翼膜在善攀鳥龍類中的出現提供了確切無疑的證據。渾元龍體內保存有胃石和疑似尚未完全消化的骨質胃容物,這是在善攀鳥龍類中首次發現的與食性相關的證據,研究人員推測其為雜食性。

  渾元龍的前肢異常加長,甚至超過了中生代多數鳥類。研究人員在對比恐龍前肢時,發現善攀鳥龍類的前肢比例構成非常奇特,而這樣的差異是否與翼膜的出現有關?為了證實這一猜測,王敏等采用基于系統發育關系的主成分分析方法來討論中生代虛骨龍類(包括鳥類)四肢長度的演化,特別是在接近飛行起源時有哪些顯著變化。系統發育主成分分析是在傳統的主成分分析上剔除親緣關系,最大程度保證采樣點的獨立性,同時復原祖先節點的特征狀態,從而展現不同類群的演化趨勢。研究結果顯示,自副鳥類(Paraves,即包括所有鳥類,但不包括竊蛋龍類的最廣義類群)開始,前肢開始加長,但僅有善攀鳥龍類的加長程度接近中生代鳥類,而這一程度其它非鳥龍類恐龍從未獲得。善攀鳥龍類前肢的加長主要源自肱骨和尺骨;在鳥類、馳龍類或者傷齒龍類中,則是掌骨的加長,而這些類群的前肢具有飛羽。研究人員認為善攀鳥龍類通過加長的肱骨和尺骨、第三手指,與棒狀長骨來附著膜質的翅膀,而鳥類、馳龍類和傷齒龍類則需要較長的掌骨來附著飛羽,顯示出兩種不同的飛行模式(“膜質翅膀和短掌骨”、“羽毛翅膀和長掌骨”)對前肢結構產生的巨大改變。

  已知的善攀鳥龍類均生活在晚侏羅世,類似的膜質翅膀沒有在白堊紀的恐龍中出現。由飛羽構成的翅膀自晚侏羅世出現就延續到白堊紀,進過漫長的演化最終形成了鳥類的羽翼,使后者成為多樣性最豐富的現生四足動物。善攀鳥龍類獨特的飛行結構代表了飛行演化的一次短暫嘗試。

  該研究得到國家自然科學基金基礎科學中心項目(克拉通破壞與陸地生物演化)、優秀青年科學基金項目、中科院青年創新促進會以及巖石圈演化國家重點實驗室(華北克拉通破壞與燕遼-熱河生物群演化)的支持。

 

1. 《自然》當期雜志封面:古脊椎所發現侏羅紀具膜質翅膀的恐龍 

 

  2. a, 長臂渾元龍正型標本;b, 骨骼復原圖;c. 膜質翼膜色素體;d. 骨質胃容物組織切片. bn, 骨質胃容物; gs, 胃石; mw, 膜質翼膜; st, 棒狀長骨(王敏供圖) 

 

  3. 中生代虛骨龍類系統樹和肢骨演化:在飛行起源時,副鳥類不同類群顯示出不同的前肢加長過程:善攀鳥龍類通過肱骨加長,結合第三手指和棒狀長骨附著膜質翅膀;而馳龍類、傷齒龍類和鳥類則通過掌骨的加長以附著羽狀翅膀(王敏供圖)

 

4. 長臂混元龍復原圖(張宗達供圖)



(責任編輯:葉瑞優)

附件:

專題推薦

相關新聞


© 1996 - 中國科學院 版權所有 京ICP備05002857號  京公網安備110402500047號  聯系我們

地址:北京市三里河路52號 郵編:100864

彩之家www.14czj.com www.821240.com | www.731974.com | www.511793.com | www.am8.com | www.tp96.com | www.36vz.com | www.766750.com | www.819675.com | www.032954.com | www.583901.com | 256253.com | 279101.com | www.69351.cc | www.258591.com | www.513666.cc | 138977.com | 127565.com | www.1wm.cc | www.111451.com | www.543072.cc | www.75zu.com | www.87933.com | www.167889.cc | www.796468.com | www.620296.com | www.796062.com | www.48ij.com | www.75uq.com | www.rs78.com | www.249594.com | www.ml1.com | www.1005.net | www.105566.cc | www.976490.com | 967442.com | www.201468.com | 870363.com | www.7599.xyz | www.193082.com | www.868890.com | www.353852.com | www.937756.com | www.981493.com | www.1177927.com | www.820.in | www.335845.com | www.555654.com | www.743813.com | www.54es.com | www.44wv.com | www.63se.com | 654675.com | www.192779.com | www.362026.com | 811912.com | 175603.com | 623206.com | www.57wc.com | www.6091.shop | www.5969.org | www.8924.net | 968474.com | 079613.com | 福利彩票www.flff8.com | www.34773.com | www.433338.com | www.gn09.com | www.90ns.com | www.20bx.com | www.63tp.com | www.to30.com | www.2188.com | www.8901.top | www.582713.com | www.9365.tv | www.595848.com | 福利彩票www.flff5.com | www.313301.com | www.44np.com | www.0044.xyz | www.1911.in | www.28592.cc | www.94166.cc | www.63647.com | www.626685.com | ky02.com | www.xm79.com | www.8565.org | www.98248.com | www.298173.com | www.753216.com | 388466.com | www.wy7.cc | 065675.com | www.367769.com | www.11210.com | www.323567.com | 858457.com | www.772332.com | www.33397.cc | www.5063.cn | www.92062.com | www.121640.com | www.cj83.com | www.p02.net | www.4907.vip | www.26345.com | www.70642.com | www.599287.com | www.739546.com | www.39911.com | www.089396.com | www.387038.com | 2874.biz | www.960368.com | www.bf46.com | www.478968.com | 384.net-549.net-584.net-754.net | www.56rl.com | www.8598.site | www.26463.com | www.675736.com | 980689.com | www.60sv.com | www.152783.com | 951034.com | www.976348.com | 8049.cc | www.931557.com | www.923851.com | 577458.com | www.191068.com | www.252595.com | www.438311.com | 573915.com | 146149.com | www.41225.com | www.99776.com | www.68185.com | www.312890.com | 2863.biz | www.751804.com | www.97893.cc | www.4139.biz | www.39952.com | www.197379.com | www.250918.com | www.5054.biz | www.316999.com | www.590318.com | 369254.com | 097816.com | www.356574.com | 58905.com | vx96.com | www.tf31.com | www.2343.pw | www.8673.top | www.66868.com | www.567273.com | www.962395.com | 080804.com | www.268603.com | www.869114.com | www.268202.com | www.047510.com | 184828.com | www.164064.cc | www.8910.in | www.889135.com | GO彩www.fo64.com | www.097750.com | www.62708.com | www.97355.com | www.415464.com | 16ed.com | www.811027.com | www.565693.com | www.915004.com | 8号彩票www.60108l.com | www.65nw.com | www.93vj.com | www.643015.com | www.l72.cc | www.89578.com | 390936.com | www.16ie.com | www.46543.com | www.532013.com | www.616451.com | www.921038.com | 386080.com | 314024.com | www.bl36.com | www.cs22.com | www.6219.cc | www.360123.com | www.877738.com | 334644.com | 031875.com | www.82252.com | www.586510.com | 346517.com | 388797.com | 538693.com | www.20zz.com | www.er83.com | www.44165.com | www.33dq.com | www.6777.tv | www.040218.com | www.173810.com | www.827636.com | www.721477.com | www.876378.com | 633071.com | www.7825.top | www.092179.cc | www.698746.com | www.60611.cc | www.11396.cc | www.969145.com | www.905234.com | 025921.com | www.949357.com | www.836106.com | www.16944.com | www.34130.com | www.185793.com | www.745552.com | www.cp174.com | www.51357.cc | E彩堂www.43818t.com | www.674546.com | www.965013.com | www.26268.cc | www.183171.com | www.688870.com | 281477.com | www.h32.cc | www.136382.com | www.586830.com | www.cai9622.com | www.8334.cn | www.346383.com | www.538937.com | www.516001.com | www.094305.com | www.205622.com | 526981.com | www.21jy.com | www.7555.site | www.147744.com | www.070989.com | www.138020.com | www.2888.pro | www.dm89.com | www.23007.com | www.103828.com | www.237092.com | www.812186.com | 888310.com | www.006847.cc | www.932052.com | www.42pj.com | www.085022.com | www.912272.com | 445770.com | 965246.com | www.0553.net | www.028281.com | www.155154.com | www.71503.com | www.657283.com | www.c33.space | www.682681.com | www.776614.com | 517998.com | www.417385.com | www.987075.com | www.px82.com | www.6244.vip | www.58969.com | www.836538.com | 466586.com | 683897.com | 877315.com | www.9339.cc | www.090518.com | 125566.com | www.754632.com | www.888017.com | www.665940.com | www.686728.com | www.881233.com | www.wt54.com | www.2169.wang | www.9471.mobi | www.033430.com | www.1999.live | www.83755.cc | www.113689.com | www.2161.com | www.376879.com | www.696117.com | www.060941.com | www.166.in | www.xs81.com | www.fr49.com | www.567217.com | www.ib20.com | www.259263.com | www.666822.com | www.560296.com | 43527.cc | www.bm70.com | www.cp260.com | www.55933.com | www.1934.xyz | www.334154.com | www.231382.com | 751840.com | 414687.com | www.954391.com | 210814.com | 028617.com | www.zp17.com | www.082967.com | 916415.com | www.079933.com | www.982773.com | www.972734.com | www.x35.club | www.su32.com | www.52ly.com | 059002.com | 923606.com | www.gx60.com | www.41611.com | www.033089.com | www.6480.cn | www.174433.com | www.379707.com | www.003466.com | www.213798.com | www.673662.com | www.801913.com | 606586.com | www.979581.com | www.205234.com | www.324800.com | www.929780.com | 272875.com | www.749888.com | 914856.com | www.6hh.cc | 822102.com | www.506531.com | www.793883.com | www.602277.com | 中彩网www.61233c.com | www.5365.cm | www.99187.cc | www.273117.com | 凤凰彩票www.55228l.com | www.1350.me | www.961114.com | www.vj06.com | www.415637.com | www.547967.com | 48555.cc | www.641488.com | www.8457.cn | www.091011.com | www.132931.com | www.79233.com | www.567023.com | www.654666.com | www.4066am.com | www.yp17.com | www.69.me | 20ed.com | www.639432.com | www.41282.com | www.14rt.com | 34258.com | www.k17.top | www.195062.com | www.617403.com | 446869.com | 976174.com | www.190197.com | www.345789.cc | www.00708.com | www.894918.com | www.19mh.cc | www.nn74.com | www.882411.com | www.sl23.com | www.102764.com | uh85.com | www.02136.com | www.38217.com | 707803.com | 126171.com | 873193.com | 111508.com | 网易彩票www.07163y.com | www.dg67.com | www.ln64.com | www.2411.in | www.384.cc | www.133962.com | www.624665.com | www.984279.com | www.968664.com | www.896307.com | www.606697.com | www.916830.com | www.52mt.cc | www.199958.com | 500彩票www.50054b.com | 105652.com | www.590869.com | www.604507.com | www.cai9300.com | dy05.com | www.58798.com | www.065384.com | www.90344.com | www.738878.com | www.649833.com | www.417417.com | www.845636.com | www.074707.com | www.55rh.com | www.772914.com | 240775.com | www.163214.com | www.280047.com | www.hd03.com | www.308586.com | www.87uk.com | www.298060.com | www.543990.com | www.667147.com | www.887867.com | 80856.cc | www.70da.com | www.9613.biz | www.003391.com | www.801880.com | 23450.cc | 316529.com | 452013.com | www.ol12.com | www.uh29.com | www.mu86.com | www.712977.com | www.503799.com | 169097.com | www.093044.com | www.961578.com | www.872748.com | www.555328.com | 652875.com | www.6759.net | www.27329.com | www.7879.hk | www.625315.com | www.986959.com | 501525.com | www.71113.com | www.607782.com | www.699510.com | www.ri1.com | 835586.com | www.03lt.com | www.141909.com | www.973753.com | 153846.com | www.11wb.com | www.029625.com | www.155983.com | www.778333.com | www.999873.com | 170590.com | www.126280.com | www.319877.com | www.285233.com | www.34rv.com | www.75259.com | www.362083.com | www.732973.com | www.737391.com | www.6gl.com | www.356614.com | www.289492.com | www.63179.com | www.129335.com | www.135925.com | www.574822.com | www.230965.com | www.0150.loan | www.409895.com | 127090.com | www.789376.com | www.831223.com | 842138.cc | 607570.com | 369405.com | 277987.com--haotxbb.com | www.98900.cc | www.346644.com | www.314163.com | www.704811.com | www.458237.com | www.167311.com | www.876032.com | www.927025.com | www.80ni.com | www.504707.com | www.89cw.com | www.44639.com | www.319691.com | www.204822.com | www.069335.com | www.755165.com | www.37152.cc | www.75629.cc | www.221919.com | www.192125.com | 719159.com | www.9960.net | www.139779.com | 322045.com | www.60la.com | www.501283.com | www.433354.com | www.788741.com | 098579.com | www.878007.com | www.mm35.com | 807931.com | www.767.cc | www.362607.com | www.411849.com | 福利彩票www.99677x.com | www.264898.com | www.964238.com | www.5598.site | www.v22.org | www.1913.net | www.8582.site | www.q12.org | 500万彩票www.w725.com | 729110.com | www.581212.com | www.49lq.com | www.110715.com | www.230250.com | www.031888.cc | 325963.com | www.hi58.com | www.4aq.com | www.72ax.com | www.mc21.cc | www.6211.pw | www.00631.com | www.96819.com | www.8878.red | 367552.com | www.641886.com | www.949283.com | www.7520.com | www.322023.com | www.990797.com | www.758627.com | www.7237.com | www.579781.com | www.0069.com | 天天彩票www.150882.com | 686000.com | www.j40.xyz | 中国福利彩票www.6364f.com | www.4489.vip | www.2160.tv | www.135335.com | www.848837.com | www.9938.pw | www.6260.top | www.99ts.com | www.1675.wang | www.9917.online | www.5271.cn | www.744.me | www.033835.com | www.495911.com | www.580875.com | www.410667.com | www.807004.com | www.840007.com | www.703668.cc | www.954052.com | www.928557.com | www.954791.com | 558667.com | www.949283.com | 096051.com | 177075.com | www.357517.com | www.283618.com | www.358990.com | www.306955.com | 767312.com | 彩民网www.76520v.com | www.628418.com | www.260490.com | www.271957.com | www.632119.com | www.247136.com | www.588312.com | www.644890.com | www.65ny.com | www.31eh.com | www.37759.com | www.082005.com | www.939573.com | www.507357.com | www.952041.com | www.062459.com | 776777.com | www.96116.cc | www.218293.com | www.156466.com | www.517001.com | www.305293.com | www.229967.com | www.7287.vip | www.82166.com | www.16.vip | www.56087.com | www.603279.com | www.634033.com | www.16601.com | 861239.com | www.181998.com | www.300559.com | www.394300.com | www.756141.com | 10185.cc | www.130462.com | 105902.com | 824585.com | www.kg81.com | www.78fj.com | www.985081.com | www.e19.bid | www.ml66.cc | www.515582.com | www.688470.com | www.132434.com | www.691582.com | www.390692.com | 006426.com | 995054.com | www.965553.com | www.197.xyz | www.08530.com | www.065615.com | www.41.link | www.329279.com | www.960041.com | www.092214.com | www.01nr.com | www.964650.com | www.6532.cn | www.622011.com | 533423.com | 004760.com | 58488.com | 586857.com | www.qc52.com | www.9251.online | www.633777.com | cai3926.com | www.835453.com | 761047.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.186372.com | www.118248.com | 258091.com | www.968596.com | www.740772.com | 438258.com | 爱彩www.008ac.com | www.700428.com | www.518051.com | www.571001.com | www.048755.com | www.962574.com | www.859771.com | 500彩票www.50788d.com | cp5252.com | 530602.com | 871069.cc | www.27774.cc | www.503278.com | www.35362.cc | www.461444.com | www.894161.com | www.581274.com | www.492244.com | www.243334.com | www.025214.com | www.211586.com | www.050061.com | www.8744.loan | www.8038.biz | www.30002.com | www.o44.top | | www.031066.com | www.930565.com | 948304.com | www.56mp.com | www.028848.com | www.190950.com | www.324751.com | www.991699.com | 598391.com | www.972164.com | www.ub85.com | 546672.com | www.69803.com | www.698202.com | www.053499.com | www.336355.com | 415981.com | www.nw2.com | 032613.com | www.105369.com | www.305277.com | www.386213.com | www.129594.com | 亚投彩票www.ya002.com | www.531841.com | www.382259.com | www.930370.com | www.250313.com | www.33439.com | www.26535.com | www.81472.com | www.196679.com | www.550642.com | www.974.tv | 254153.com | www.966392.com | 322350.com | www.968520.com | www.972208.com | www.5552.in | www.338328.com | www.238099.com | www.cp5200.com | 844439.com | 顶级娱乐www.093388.com | httpztwap.com | www.024734.com | www.9295.biz | www.jw80.com | 126062.com | www.090035.com | www.218712.com | www.831305.com | www.841851.com | www.910410.com | www.589543.com | www.333393.com | 713385.com | 363917.com | www.4952.vip | 875026.com | 中彩网www.91233q.com | www.9093.site | www.103657.com | www.028253.com | www.650190.com | www.528387.com | www.68221.cc | www.11705.com | www.216308.com | 217976.com | www.81665.com | www.380311.com | www.840938.com | 062839.com | 288780.com | www.91ho.com | 376196.com | www.13ey.com | www.006304.com | www.239.in | www.8380.top | www.146930.com | www.251361.com | www.88057.com | www.387557.com | www.915283.com | www.689228.com | www.721636.com | www.006818.com | www.226719.com | 234131.com | www.857535.com | www.650672.com | www.513718.com | www.88hu.com | 076365.com | www.2762.cn | www.854796.com | 090806.com | www.8256.shop | www.56rq.com | www.18ho.com | www.kr46.com | www.85uv.com | www.095308.com | www.7086.vip | www.496648.com | 070667.com | 883471.com | 958043.com | www.946617.com | x18.top | www.404567.com | www.84xf.com | 985435.com | 实亿国际www.sygj9.com | www.ds01.com | www.305137.com | www.97774.cc | www.82zb.com | 365352.cc | www.95zw.com | www.254089.com | www.981054.com | www.52873.com | www.512957.com | www.353048.com | www.684546.com | 612596.com | wi99.cc | 926796.com | www.217620.com | 309903.com | www.229356.com | www.338339.com | www.915111.cc | 576214.com | www.595555.com | www.929081.com | www.573515.com | www.011566.com | www.57069.com | www.580255.com | 729836.com | www.3864.biz | www.732923.com | www.030082.com | www.628055.com | www.739013.com | www.379364.com | www.294007.com | www.250147.com | www.318614.com | www.834977.com | www.120559.com | www.9526.vip | www.622760.com | www.qw81.com | www.734567.cc | 126彩票网www.126ll.com | 凤凰彩票www.77803z.com | www.40xz.com | www.1662.in | www.7071.net | 288343.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.372082.com | www.951230.com | www.226914.com | www.28969.cc | www.212455.com | www.8671.top | www.60607.com | www.286094.com | 08309.com | 707627.com | www.682549.com | www.25ky.com | 761149.com | 778470.com | www.8928.biz | www.83js.com | 283804.com | 990491.com | www.ol01.com | www.18269.com | www.9569.org | www.36430.com | 500彩票www.50080n.com | www.12161.com | 974596.com | www.123876.com | www.792285.com | www.yz98.cc | 乐趣彩www.lqc9.com | 980182.com | www.188169.com | www.883865.com | www.e79.org | www.eu78.com | www.253177.com | 288062.com | www.562909.com | www.331098.com | 556630.com | www.806060.com | 09dz.com | 326543.com | www.cs95.com | www.16pz.cc | www.59kj.com | 532390.com | www.00nz.com | www.045605.com | www.577004.com | 954178.com | 785882.com | www.732391.com | www.dd75.com | 杏彩www.00840t.com | www.qe8.com | 341972.com | www.04309.com | 033691.com | www.616.tv | www.47uo.com | www.09eh.com | 顶级娱乐www.872198.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.136057.com | www.948927.com | www.657442.com | 00697.com | 484615.com | 023512.com | www.34104.com | 001931.com | www.530507.com | www.91lu.com | 926644.com | www.399596.com | www.3524.cm | www.817631.com | 02rc.com | 凤凰Vwww.www.fh7557.com | www.515239.com | www.970199.com | www.607561.com | www.259008.com | www.130540.com | www.174920.com | www.326591.com | www.x32.in | 432352.com | www.239911.com | www.98812.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.811030.com | 3056.biz | www.163732.com | www.307155.com | www.010281.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.258031.com | www.635810.com | www.4888.cc | 088279.com | www.158053.com | www.639143.com | www.255559.com | www.113997.com | www.pu04.com | www.818696.com | www.37081.com | 163354.com | www.904066.com | www.438188.com | www.449697.com | www.112100.com | www.72hm.com | 962770.com | 893678.com | 637023.com | 405449.com | www.23yh.com | www.199479.com | www.144038.com | www.794448.com | www.518820.com | 075373.com | www.870605.com | 369503.com | 799248.com | www.298059.com | www.576904.com | mi4.cc | 379639.com | www.oe66.com | www.eq0.com | www.984964.com | 567578.com | www.977989.com | www.wg78.com | 987523.com | www.999555.com | www.752391.com | www.493234.com | www.3gc.com | www.096648.com | www.948813.com | www.768404.com | www.155169.com | www.533952.com | 094788.com | www.276944.com | www.9906.xyz | www.043234.com | 480445.com | 479105.com | www.4212.cm | www.79nd.com | www.784177.com | www.060856.com | www.563739.com | www.555231.com | 132076.com | www.ps2.cc | 500彩票www.937986.com | 972457.com | 280283.com | www.992973.com | www.859412.com | www.672580.com | 46460.cc | www.br84.com | www.hd47.com | 793670.com | 中国福利彩票www.34788j.com | www.fj40.cc | www.329269.com | www.922918.com | www.657062.com | www.za92.com | www.188962.com | www.210101.com | www.037743.com | www.51jv.com | www.96hk.com | www.58ww.com | www.549308.com | www.127864.com | www.222516.com | www.516266.com | www.313832.com | 易彩集团www.25688f.com | www.105325.com | www.28af.com | www.5fr.com | 690062.com | www.908310.com | www.58471.com | 962091.com | 253209.com | www.241068.com | www.670468.com | 4809com-js115.com | www.921990.com | www.83993.com | www.265775.com | www.146500.com | www.053026.com | www.314483.com | www.291435.com | www.273715.com | www.024125.com | 970454.com | www.576384.com | www.705698.com | www.1673.vip | 417280.com | www.595000.cc | www.qb00.com | www.42ii.com | kj87.cc | 486896.com | 421850.com | www.943410.com | www.588461.com | www.315139.com | www.293952.com | www.282587.com | www.009034.com | www.051242.com | www.437.cn | www.01rb.com | 560975.com | www.984302.com | 128388.com | www.522378.com | www.x84.org | www.861905.com | www.483536.com | www.td71.com | www.762318.com | www.505763.com | www.941.cm | haobc.vip | www.569189.com | www.gy85.com | 791449.com | 719804.com | www.917133.com | www.575457.com | www.441797.com | www.125370.com | www.7853.biz | www.0183.cn | www.nb68.com | www.7811vv.com | www.855465.com | www.730657.com | www.312695.com | www.555406.com | www.011154.com | www.44024.com | www.047237.com | www.00078.cc | www.nv28.com | 286048.com | na1.cc | www.848117.com | www.857652.com | www.683283.com | www.971485.com | www.85151.cc | www.731622.com | www.673579.com | www.869840.com | www.859575.com | www.618517.com | www.987565.com | www.644987.com | www.699088.com | www.620216.com | www.490195.com | www.167746.com | www.175793.com | www.026437.com | www.201571.com | www.040437.com | www.198001.com | www.28sn.com | www.cp8933.com | 864189.com | www.929648.com | www.794096.com | 276191.com | www.838027.com | www.551817.com | www.171105.com | www.97898.cc | www.jd13.cc | www.694421.com | www.150955.com | www.041313.com | www.10624.com | www.050111.com | www.le78.com | 454299.com | 458787.com | www.625815.com | www.317452.com | www.20dy.com | www.802446.com | 948923.com | www.1801.com | www.44407.cc | www.292599.com | www.170063.com | www.125183.com | www.61753.cc | www.21zj.com | 361032.com | www.976334.com | www.32oj.com | www.95757.com | www.555055.com | www.122741.com | www.5118.me | www.2506.vip | 亿彩堂www.87668t.com | 608506.com | www.815832.com | www.385489.com | www.624178.com | www.926422.com | 910699.com | www.845048.com | www.455424.com | www.169326.com | www.206060.com | www.09674.com | www.1153.me | www.48um.com | 博创彩票www.558402.com | 840056.com | 972880.com | 209208.com | www.n96.cc | www.404759.com | www.60199.com | www.61un.com | 817839.com | 146066.com | www.hb90.com | 526086.com | www.pu73.com | 539134.com | www.967262.com | www.977568.com | www.651234.com | www.522090.com | www.782488.com | 876753.com | 518900.cc | 483932.com | www.953586.com | 269597.com | www.569819.com | www.298813.com | www.004570.com | www.qp52.com | www.968793.com | www.177002.com | www.198.cc | www.311149.com | www.63vd.com | www.784888.com | www.5452.cn | www.854635.com | www.304748.com | 开心彩票www.ck3578.com | www.901876.com | www.746733.com | www.864599.com | www.532061.com | www.290101.com | www.085358.com | www.108597.com | www.2362.vip | 158320.com--www.4996.com | 025319.com | www.976362.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.320663.com | www.400111.com | www.56655.com | 8843.biz | 465233.com | www.316860.com | www.xk72.com | www.593100.com | www.9707.loan | www.706893.com | www.440179.com | www.36931.cc | www.298191.com | www.011145.com | www.0502.cm | www.49ji.com | 805277.com | 074287.com | hj01.cc | www.935377.com | www.306210.com | www.396470.com | www.747174.com | 979.me | www.906221.com | www.355847.com | www.cp0307.com | www.933167.com | www.358454.com | www.913890.com | 280556.com | 924006.com | www.730250.com | 806032.com | 111642.com | www.85ta.com | www.965641.com | www.66112.cc | www.650.in | 631797.com | www.636581.com | www.46035.cc | www.870304.com | 715648.com | 273348.com | www.881158.com | 901610.com | www.940443.com | www.771244.com | www.028962.com | www.129488.com | www.14744.com | www.c90.cn | 810983.com | www.951664.com | www.572207.com | www.821910.com | www.708809.com | www.280812.com | www.82455.cc | www.979240.com | www.125012.com | 010036.com | www.821709.com | www.32qx.com | www.868702.com | www.553509.com | www.50pv.com | www.823314.com | www.014633.com | www.999740.com | www.277136.com | www.880690.com | www.950449.com | www.875850.com | www.970109.com | www.550248.com | 964397.com | 820481.com | www.924825.com | www.616784.com | www.847993.com | 94087.com | www.977285.com | www.657794.com | www.526677.com | www.262990.com | www.827673.com | www.519023.com | www.987374.com | 亿彩堂www.578393.com | www.966094.com | www.487300.com | www.25557.com | www.16tk.com | 936468.com | www.964791.com | www.533995.com | www.100880.com | www.033263.com | www.979932.com | www.58783.cc | 765204.com | www.508811.com | www.7516.loan | www.892957.com | www.448691.com | www.79ey.com | www.913681.com | www.0006.cm | www.al99.cc | www.iy70.com | www.41iv.com | 965154.com | 幸运彩票www.73166f.com | www.977854.com | www.671414.com | www.780861.com | 944427.com | www.679370.com | www.92po.com | www.981506.com | www.126622.com | www.151164.com | www.644463.com | www.267577.com | www.0612.cm | www.463803.com | www.301402.com | www.221708.com | www.872247.com | www.787817.com | www.130842.com | www.39126.cc | www.2577.com | www.dm5.com | www.uf75.com | 391244.com | 03409.com | www.684485.com | www.110917.com | www.110143.com | www.6389.org | www.70fk.com | www.zm07.com | 332945.com | 788685.com | www.336556.com | www.1961.org | www.5766.top | www.3215.bid | 243883.com | 839475.com | www.736835.com | www.984470.com | 664654.com | www.810896.com | www.153750.com | www.85678.cc | aw29.com | www.396585.com | www.59893.com | 980426.com | www.929994.com | www.9878.org | 039550.com | www.611553.com | www.353559.com | www.bg80.com | www.758001.com | 80834.com | www.693699.com | 407490.com | www.933170.com | www.71221.cc | E彩堂www.43818u.com | www.881964.com | www.403644.cc | www.11jp.com | www.965823.com | www.31279.com | 中国福利彩票www.08588n.com | www.490163.com | www.qj61.com | 157245.com | www.855653.com | www.955911.com | qv37.com | www.736260.com | www.299277.com | www.984564.com | www.224747.com | www.ks46.com | www.999039.com | www.026526.com | 110613.com | 810191.com | www.978154.com | www.512645.com | www.cd17.com | www.135.cc | 680632.com | www.102467.com | www.356020.com | www.660687.com | www.5720.cn | www.676509.com | www.400191.com | www.027034.com | www.549.cc | 094656.com | www.928980.com | www.380041.com | www.4719.com | www.610578.com | www.313300.com | www.318432.com | www.66832.com | www.350328.com | www.057987.com | www.c32.net | 443498.com | www.670448.com | www.994721.cc | www.626960.com | yk89.com | www.654911.com | www.760393.com | 015760.com | www.718631.com | www.253283.com | www.257236.com | www.009844.com | www.093791.com | www.338606.com | www.079631.com | www.173391.com | www.89724.com | www.pp56.com | 610539.com | www.mm95.com | www.1178.cm | www.0453.love | www.120706.com | www.115091.com | 006493.com | www.707939.com | www.981868.com | www.550118.com | www.96259.cc | 990497.com | www.773227.com | 315352.com | 954869.com--www.43365c.com | www.99640.com | www.11616.com | www.6649.xyz | 500彩票www.50064f.com | 047922.com | 173580.com | www.75ik.com | 569617.com | www.853255.com | www.375615.com | www.30og.com | 091127.com | www.964201.com | www.381311.com | www.165098.com | www.444922.com | www.256262.com | www.it32.com | www.i29.net | 027131.com | www.555380.com | www.s80.org | www.jt30.com | www.wq36.com | 969108.com | www.879902.com | www.963072.com | 132242.com | www.945551.com | www.832712.com | www.662501.com | www.696996.com | www.775412.com | www.306455.com | www.056639.com | www.79978.com | www.hi5.cc | 585299.com | 445225.com | www.650588.com | 953473.com | 51862.com | www.761634.com | www.285266.com | 中华彩票www.9149p.com | www.q77.com | 3774.biz | www.210636.com | www.212420.com | www.939355.com | www.607732.com | www.582034.com | www.946051.com | www.537171.com | www.840639.com | www.978457.com | www.304527.com | www.236752.com | www.1706.com | 500彩票www.324377.com | www.946566.com | www.513869.com | www.189401.com | www.9567.cm | 中国福利彩票www.6364b.com | www.7401.com | www.cw81.com | 114017.com | www.951429.com | www.633124.com | www.638285.com | www.165138.cc | www.673758.com | www.098180.com | www.38330.com | 网易彩票www.485648.com | www.1162.vip | 网易彩票www.9356n.com | 025446.com | www.641919.com | 网易彩票www.098wy.com | www.358787.com | 559623.com | 405448.com | www.576145.com | www.604569.com | www.317200.cc | www.623617.com | 421860.com | 331264.com | www.801966.com | www.267255.com | www.094133.com | www.mw12.com | 583620.com | www.980463.com | www.555045.cc | www.381846.com | www.233989.com | www.39115.com | www.140958.com | www.346522.com | www.598086.com | www.87pg.com | 7593.biz | www.71lr.com | www.937651.com | www.490987.com | www.312236.com | www.391536.com | www.93466.com | www.8482.cn | 080670.com | www.31635.cc | www.736377.com | www.793875.com | 467155.com | www.817610.com | 凤凰彩票www.3479v.com | www.751007.com | www.734903.com | 052094.com | www.618497.com | www.019206.com | www.4897.vip | www.xpj340.com | www.45de.com | 853347.com | www.762837.com | www.0479.in | www.301996.com | www.44224.com | www.745833.com | www.071976.com | www.101575.com | www.162378.com | www.0783.blue | www.01980.com | www.cai4644.com | 745534.com | www.09sx.com | www.648711.com | www.14mw.com | 706770.com | www.698597.com | www.28962.cc | www.cai05.com | www.616449.com | www.77762.com | www.913297.com | 128550.com | 248547.com | www.885736.com | www.740543.com | www.850174.com | 554168.cc | www.819208.com | www.433554.com | www.692306.com | www.949575.com | www.737270.com | www.163498.com | www.145612.com | www.xx31.com | 393988.com | www.563028.com | www.76792.com | www.15il.com | 466602.com | www.462009.com | www.178724.com | www.020284.com | www.015946.com | www.28573.cc | 500彩票www.602450.com | www.sm14.com | 326817.com | 261552.com | www.34169.com | www.fw02.com | 981102.com | www.85rk.com | 日彩网www.rcw8833.com | www.873358.com | www.658348.com | www.520721.com | www.256885.com | www.59817.cc | www.333041.com | www.191006.com | www.143141.com | www.340792.com | www.013949.com | www.ty19.com | 082070.com | www.961737.com | www.392692.com | www.631759.com | www.433371.com | www.689484.com | www.271907.com | www.14384.com | www.761263.com | www.136580.cc | www.78322.cc | www.150415.com | www.75527.com | www.w46.cn | 开心彩票www.257015.com | 948962.com | www.455268.com | 384267.com | www.539943.com | www.060931.com | www.281112.com | 盛大彩票www.ct8800.com | www.789083.com | www.61350.com | 937915.com | www.497686.com | www.3377.vip | 907307.com | www.12336.com | 7802.me | www.29129.cc | 网易彩票www.07163w.com | www.984559.com | www.381915.com | www.125077.com | www.060561.com | www.289256.com | www.2580.me | www.500766.cc | www.78bu.com | www.593268.com | www.16365.com | 609064.com | www.338264.com | 676959.com | www.809768.com | www.715891.com | www.859385.com | www.731565.com | www.53977.cc | www.653150.com | www.970511.com | www.846163.com | www.501932.com | www.1708.hk | www.793073.com | www.44976.com | www.124331.com | www.0245.net | www.721126.com | www.763434.com | www.428923.com | 874583.com | www.685618.com | www.584687.com | www.213772.com | www.025045.com | www.153607.com | www.139157.com | www.54324.com | www.372327.com | www.2817.top | 852205.com | www.748151.com | 090533.com | 719021.com | 658824.com | www.428703.com | www.100078.cc | www.09937.com | www.cb48.com | 611223.com | www.692368.com | www.407474.com | www.444740.com | www.98817.cc | 405258.com | www.982418.com | www.460180.com | www.755925.com | www.288522.com | www.45414.com | www.2073.pw | www.357955.com | www.092659.com | www.359998.com | www.yl07.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.902775.com | www.gj86.com | www.14cu.com | 945222.com | www.838625.com | www.636651.com | www.75392.cc | pv04.com | www.916670.com | www.323195.com | 122517.com | www.2684.mobi | 251893.com | www.963024.com | www.881938.com | www.751612.com | 179953.com | www.590848.com | 015927.com | www.660161.com | www.374902.com | www.421605.com | www.295936.com | www.49904.com | www.pl66.com | 657602.com | www.795695.com | www.268720.com | www.328301.com | www.3233.org | 271695.com | www.715192.com | www.095172.com | www.88719.com | www.917300.com | www.252210.com | www.0641.org | www.pd24.com | www.949550.com | www.657526.com | www.354996.com | www.456841.com | www.954186.com | www.614327.com | www.115646.com | www.yd30.com | www.uy81.com | 937281.com | www.684099.com | www.029926.com | www.43734.com | www.1061.net | www.0092.org | 870011.com | www.999926.com | www.346161.com | www.835388.com | www.215678.com | www.76zq.com | 0733.date | www.331333.cc | www.39xu.com | www.xk33.cc | www.34ma.com | 068596.com | www.5713.biz | 738414.com | www.705432.com | www.262587.com | www.ek63.com | 323865.com | www.944778.com | 236050.com | www.922266.com | www.676707.com | www.023223.com | www.8197.top | www.hm87.com | www.111615.com | www.09su.com | www.937154.com | www.239509.com | www.3678.biz | www.1wj.cc | 113379.com | www.677200.com | www.zc49.com | www.771634.com | www.13576.cc | 153996.com | www.987234.com | 870420.com | www.796854.com | www.675296.com | www.115921.com | www.dv43.com | 892706.com | www.908909.cc | www.337792.com | www.jw12.com | 031291.com | www.889388.com | www.372710.com | www.307322.com | www.4162.biz | 906009.com | www.814811.com | www.660785.com | www.63116.com | www.04407.com | 众发彩票www.878zf.com | www.957863.com | www.502258.com | www.1824.cm | www.hv12.com | 329234.com | www.732768.com | www.176948.com | www.82mx.com | 500彩票www.343277.com | www.912505.com | www.711766.com | po68.com | www.906609.com | www.766117.com | 623613.com | www.758871.com | www.234446.com | www.0929.net | 幸运彩票www.927699.com | www.911592.com | www.818381.com | www.566831.com | www.778898.cc | www.619303.com | www.061336.com | www.4203.top | 彩票3www.808523.com | www.991252.com | 290449.com | www.cp7310.com | www.87pl.com | www.893200.com | www.975089.com | www.448059.com | www.8773.pw | www.fk0.com | www.557740.com | www.ck84.com | 088145.com | www.568105.com | www.78860.com | www.39239.cc | www.9936.loan | 896949.com | www.705133.com | www.037065.com | www.556996.com | www.951141.com | www.287546.com | www.063777.com | www.54.com | www.dg86.com | 03m.pw | www.630375.com | www.367796.com | www.325128.com | www.22827.com | 276652.com | www.374085.com | www.306851.com | www.04709.com | www.7358.top | www.691.tv | 677647.com | www.814209.com | www.769570.com | www.518810.com | www.87368.cc | www.287561.com | www.792.cc | 254936.com | 383001.com | www.657502.com | www.694441.com | www.11ej.com | www.999875.com | www.09738.com | www.825446.com | www.88wh.com | 7947.biz | www.706633.com | www.397378.com | www.099166.com | www.362900.com | www.109492.com | 894830.com | www.926976.com | www.280797.com | www.158881.com | www.724.me | www.14449.cc | 110646.com | www.678194.com | www.140003.com | www.6656.cm | www.g88.cn | 9379.biz | www.961843.com | www.353068.com | www.oi78.com | 663689.com | www.507965.com | www.401696.com | www.7609.vip | 034118.com | www.657294.com | www.882199.com | www.576249.com | www.252805.com | www.ig3.cc | www.935955.com | www.299226.com | www.53677.cc | www.mb26.com | www.970491.com | cp6161.com | www.vb08.com | 603450.com | 215868.com | www.527357.com | www.my55.com | 037976.com | 4290.biz | www.440019.com | www.57531.cc | www.cp5177.com | www.828184.com | 862740.com | www.561781.com | www.016929.com | www.18617.com | www.1193.pw | www.ah82.com | 393557.com | www.361747.com | www.454037.com | www.73769.cc | 364659.com | www.869833.com | www.338883.com | www.1274.pw | 742785.com | www.858005.com | www.560112.com | www.173872.com | www.4293.org | www.44rs.com | 692501.com | www.825695.com | www.325297.com | www.391055.com | www.1106.com | www.002.cx | 005201.com | www.733664.com | www.140521.com | www.004622.com | www.4pl.com | 天玺彩票www.208780.com | 253705.com | 673621.com | www.586368.com | www.441219.com | www.951.cm | www.801726.com | www.vj54.com | www.612389.com | 688285.com | www.587861.com | www.72276.cc | www.mm48.com | www.796544.com | www.577216.com | www.46800.com | 603234.com | www.927807.com | www.254756.com | www.26kr.com | 13e彩票www.810895.com | 510034.com | www.662337.com | www.222430.com | www.30yj.com | 717690.com | www.uy44.com | www.941323.com | www.422011.com | www.41140.com | 308005.com | www.631397.com | www.454779.com | www.110124.com | www.770.vip | 557889.com | www.551854.com | www.8886.in | 福彩网www.60007f.com | 500彩票www.701541.com | www.830366.com | www.202779.com | www.282332.com | www.t52.top | www.931078.com | www.790563.com | www.114229.com | www.09wj.com | www.941590.com | www.223659.com | www.4542.win | 网易彩票www.077wy.com | www.846508.com | www.505851.com | www.34914.com | 094706.com | www.770354.com | www.107877.com | www.44mw.com | 879159.com | www.506895.com | www.886419.com | www.543068.com | www.326.red | www.7928.cn | 656208.com | www.718263.com | www.021065.com | www.b22.pw | www.861260.com | www.365559.cc | www.5487.top | www.974811.com | 595448.com | www.215665.com | 037002.com--163a.com | hq46.com | www.581118.com | www.575758.com | www.024225.com | www.04nq.com | www.916607.com | www.690969.com | www.539764.com | www.355329.com | www.cy37.com | www.on61.com | 994754.com | www.352470.com | www.223136.com | www.yv23.com | www.o24.me | 340080.com | www.611933.com | www.352883.com | www.yl02.cc | www.879485.com | www.502270.com | www.5294.vip | 56333.cc | www.912842.com | www.9979.org | www.887420.com | 250930.com | www.656932.com | www.524493.com | 920061.com | www.637278.com | www.21076.com | 500彩票www.501354.com | www.744033.com | www.004341.com | 星际www.m.55xj.vip | www.807756.com | www.081048.com | www.p25.pw | www.847536.com | www.894861.com | www.1844.net | www.848511.com | www.004697.com | www.996731.com | www.17677.com | www.948035.com | www.150139.com | 644538.com | www.168768.com | www.278626.com | www.xu79.com | www.938444.com | www.167004.com | www.1147.pw | 81204.com | www.563590.com | www.32397.com | www.qn55.com | www.717586.com | www.51515.cc | www.41490.com | www.254018.com | 466918.com | www.148133.com | www.5218.pw | www.807981.com | www.78171.com | 610640.com | www.081280.com | 954742.com | www.38859.com | www.920048.com | www.4787.net | www.702819.com | 红旗彩票www.629053.com | www.953414.com | www.135411.com | www.4772.biz | 皇家彩票www.hj7776.com | www.688785.com | www.004336.com | 福彩www.26878y.com | www.830128.com | www.116912.com | www.tq09.com | 518022.cc | www.644557.com | www.439249.com | www.082969.com | www.1304.pw | 179972.com | www.518458.com | www.358294.com | www.5577.live | 53346.com | www.464615.com | www.247244.com | 500彩票www.52072v.com | www.82kt.com | www.1391.top | 579160.com | www.567472.com | www.329896.com | www.2848.vip | 274285.com | 6923.biz | 972303.com | www.990866.com | 707123.com | www.350313.com | www.092672.com | www.536876.com | www.869.cn | 078365.com | www.594904.com | www.280540.com | 51彩票www.725898.com | www.8846